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Where to live? The framework for the answer determines the range offered at the moment the real estate market. In fact, there are 2 types of housing - high-rise apartment houses in cities and cottages in a cottage village. Two extremes, between which there is little or no transition in the form of small and mid-quarterly building located in an urban environment.
Thus, the thesis I: small and medium height buildings located in urban areas niche not filled.
In addition to restrictions on the typology, for the moment, there are stylistic limitations for selecting the right building. Virtually the entire palette of objects offered for sale is made in the spirit of modern architectural trends, sometimes with small patches of historical or traditional style. Offers in the "historical" style in its purest form mostly not available.
Meanwhile, in the course of social development in our country it has been achieved quite a lot of interesting architectural ideas, united in certain styles and trends. From the perspective of 2015 styles emerged and realized before 1917 can be roughly defined as a homogeneous (though of course they are different, but everything is relative). Below are the main styles of architecture before the October Revolution:
It is no secret that in many such buildings are more attractive to consumers, at least, for a large part of them. They are beautiful, original, passed the test of time, in them a pleasure to live and work. But is it possible to acquire such objects by middle-class?
If we look again at the real estate market, we see that the same segment of small and medium height buildings located in urban areas and related to the historical, ie outdated architecture presented a shabby buildings to be reconstructed (at a cost comparable to the reerection), and at risk of demolition for high-rise buildings, or super-expensive offerings in the centers of large cities:
It is worth noting that the number of old buildings is steadily declining, not at the expense of reconstruction, and due to, unfortunately, in the demolition of high-rise buildings to a residential area. Ie in the short term, if nothing changes for the better in this niche will only inaccessible for middle class (or even its top) offer in the centers of large cities. Thus, the number of proposals already quite small, will continue to decline. Suffice it to say that, due to the process in 2010 the list of historical settlements RF was reduced 13-fold compared with the editors 1990.
Thesis II: Small and medium height buildings in historical styles district development niche is not full enough and has a tendency to reduce sentences.
Therefore, we can state the following (thesis III): as the market is almost no suggestions for inexpensive and does not require reconstruction of small and mid-rise building in historical styles district development, it is necessary to generate the proposal.
Determination of the object place
Let's try to define the principal location of the complex, forming the desired we offer. Placement of such a facility in the historic center of a city would be difficult for several reasons:
1. Historical centers of most cities of Russia lost in the uniformity is often of poor quality in terms of the laws of harmony building. Manifestation of uniformity greatly altered the structure - it needed, but, nevertheless, it is difficult doable. It is hardly too much burden can make attractive the described project.
2. If we assume that the historical center is whole, then there is a problem with the availability of land for construction of a large complex of buildings. Also, we should mention the problem of property rights within the boundaries of an existing building real estate developer to decide which would be quite difficult.
3. Also, we can not exclude a certain amount of urban planning errors, inconsistencies modern standards and aesthetic requirements, the possibility of social tension - all this is unavoidable in the current environment for centuries.
On the outskirts of an existing town also hosted the proposed facility is not desirable because of possible damage to its aesthetic qualities uncontrolled multi-storey buildings.
The most favorable location of the object of this specification is the area that is sufficiently far from the existing city or suburb is an existing town/rural settlement with a strict ban on high rise construction.
In view of the above conditions, this concept proposed design of the city (or the system blocks) with the historic building "from scratch".
The proposed name of the city - Novoarkhangelsk.
The number of residents - about 1071
Dimensions of the village - 340 x 474 m
Area - 12.03 ha
Built-up area - 31 058,4 m2
Number of buildings - 166 units
The estimated total area of buildings - 77 646,8 m2
The maximum height of regular buildings - 18-20 m
Number of building stories - 1, 2, 3, 4 floors.
The maximum height of high-rise landmarks - 35 m
The compositional center of a small area on the perimeter of which are public buildings. Of these, you can especially highlight the temple courtyard with seating inside. Gostiny Dvor is on a river or lake (as the location of the village on the waterfront is a traditional and correct in terms of aesthetics).
As a planning unit is taken perimeter type of building block. On the outer side of each quarter - a common area on the inside, usually accessible only to residents. In general, to homes on the inside quarter it has a small private garden.
System streets deliberately irregular in order to simulate the natural development of the area for several centuries. Also, irregularities connected with the desire to limit the power of the wind in the city. The current system of transport corridors provides a certain amount of Tperektrestkov, the probability of an accident in which less than traditional intersections.
The relief area - relatively quiet, with a slight difference. Adaptability and a more pronounced relief.
1. Refusal of typical building In total, the city will be located about 166 buildings. Each of them will have their own, well-designed personality.
2. Russian Silhouette. Storey building Townhouse - 1, 2, 3, 4 floors, maximum altitude - within 18-20 m. High-rise dominant is there - the church seating in the yard (27 m height), Gostiny Dvor Gate bell tower (35 m), the church in one of the main streets (height 32 m), Water Tower (24 m).
Buildings within a single quarter will not differ in height by more than 1-2 floors. High-rise dominants not be hidden private buildings, as often happens in today's reality. The correct ratio of the ordinary high-rise buildings and landmarks harmonizes space and brings scale to the scale of human development.
3. The restriction applies to a certain period of architectural styles. Buildings should look as if they were built in the period from the beginning of the XVII century until the October Revolution. This allowed some of the elements of the urban environment with a modern design - for example, a small building, covering roads, bus stops, etc. Such exceptions are necessary to revive the space, avoiding excessive Museumplein.
4. Functional separation. The main type of buildings in the city - housing, but also provided facilities to accommodate shops, offices, catering, etc., as well as religious institutions. Representation within the boundaries of the village in terms of various typologies of objects to avoid the disadvantages of a typical bedroom community and provide employment of the people in the immediate vicinity of the house.
5. The organization of the transport system. The transport system is represented by bike path on both sides of the streets (on the perimeter of all quarters), roads with one- and two-way traffic, pavements (also on both sides of the streets, along the perimeter of all quarters). Parking places - along the side streets (guest parking), underground parking under the central seating area and a yard (parking for residents, partly guest). Entry of private vehicles inside the yard completely banned. Leaving the possibility of fire engines
directions into each of the yards.
Public transport is represented by the bus service to the nearest large town, stop - at Gostiny Dvor.
6. Fire safety. Buildings with wooden structures separated buildings with stone structures to isolate a possible fire. In every yard there firefighter travel, mostly in the "green" design (lawn lattice).
7. Greening. For most of the houses has a small fenced plot of land already planted trees. Caring for them will be attached to the city staff (in the case of the owner has no opportunities to engage in gardening). Also inside the quarters have a piece of land that is common to all tenants. In the opposite courtyard building required trees - their crown hide windows from unwanted looks neighbors.
The facades are decorated with ornamental plants, some of the walls and the roof can be "green".
8. Dense housing. An important difference from the pre-revolutionary Russian city buildings in Novoarkhangelsk will be sealed. House must stand firmly for the efficient use of available space. The denser construction, the lower the costs, but is also important to avoid excessive crowding.
11. Restrictive measures. At the moment, Russia is a place to be almost absolute freedom of the formation of the built environment, leading to negative consequences for its aesthetic value. A visual comparison of the results of the free approach (Russia) and repressive (eg Germany, Sweden) leads to the conclusion about the usefulness of the latter.
In Novoarckhangelsk provides for a system of penalties, committing to maintain the appearance of the building and adjacent land in the proper form. The ban on the extensions, add-ins, glazing of balconies, changing the appearance of elements filling openings, painting, etc.
Also, to ensure safety and comfort for all residents and visitors are prohibited dog contained on the circuit in the courts, banned dog walking without muzzles and leashes (outside of specialized areas), unaccompanied owners.
A ban on the advertising of sound. Placing signs and billboards - in line with the "Design code of Moscow" (with possible reservations).
Also worth mentioning is the prohibition of multi-storey building within a certain radius of the city.
The urban environment must be strictly regulated by local legislation to improve the quality of life and capitalization projects.
12. Use historical geometric shapes. Historically developed in Russia geometric shapes of architectural objects can be classified according to the diagram below:
Development of the Russian settlements dictates a complex and interesting palette of architectural forms. In addition to the stylistic framework, clear and certain restrictions on the geometric area. There are the following basic forms of historically buildings:
Form I - bell tower. This is usually the highest of the city. Height dictated by the terms of sound of the bells on the largest possible distance. Are conductors religious functions, as well as form the original silhouette of the city. It should be noted prevnesenie and beauty in the sound space of the city using a bell ringing. Access to the bell tower should be universal, free and around the
clock: with a panoramic view of the city.
Form II - Temple. Along with the bell towers, high-rise landmarks are important. Perform religious and entertainment functions, improve sound and spiritual space by all sorts of religious rituals and holidays.
Form III - Gostiny Dvor. Gostiny Dvor (shopping arcade) was an integral part of any more or less large settlements. It houses the commercial establishments, catering, facilities for the provision of municipal services. Also living in the territory of households can often find churches and chapels. By volume courtyard seating is the largest building project.
Form IV - building with a portico. This type of building historically mainly classical style to accommodate the living quarters of the nobility, as well as administrative, office buildings, hospitals, libraries etc.
Form V - a building with a mezzanine. Shape similar to the previous type, with the same application.
Form VI - building with a parlor. One of the most original and interesting Russian geometric shapes, very characteristic of towns and villages in central Russia. Application - mainly residential buildings for accommodation purposes.
Form VII - building with a hipped roof. A widely used type of building, remarkable in that it can successfully be combined with almost any architectural style and typology.
Form VIII - building with a gable roof. Also very popular type of formation, intended mainly for residential and business areas.
13. Architectural details. Before the commissioning of the facility should be completed in full. In regard to the external appearance, it is worked out every detail, down to the door handle. All solutions embodied as a result of the project should be legally protected from undesired changes, such as, for example, a balcony glazing, the facade color to another color, border painting etc.
14. Architectural Materials. The materials used are broadly consistent with historical reality, although it may be noted unusual architecture of Russian copper shingles, toned of varnish wood, stone. Only natural, not modern materials.
Novoarkhangelsk is a kind of replica of the old Russian city. It is important to note the convention of such copying.
Firstly, such a high-density development has been a little typical for cities of the Russian Empire, which owns a vast land resources. The decision to increase the density in comparison with real historical prototypes driven by a desire for greater economic and social efficiency of the project (engineering, transport communications, the cost of time/energy on movement between locations - their number, and therefore the value is directly proportional to the square of the town). This task was not possible to shrink the construction site, and select a compromise that allows you to combine a comfortable stay with the best price of the object.
Second, stylistic purity, presented in such a concept - an unprecedented phenomenon for the current urban environment of modern Russia. The construction boom of the 2000s seriously affected the destruction of the Russian city of authenticity. Pre-Revolutionary city also could not have experts who control the correctness of certain aesthetic decisions, resulting in could turn out bad in the aspect of style combinations.
Thirdly, transport, engineering, resurfacing components - the most modern and developed little resemblance to the 1917 and even 2015 prototypes. Novoarkhangelsk is not tied to a specific parcel of land. The project can be implemented in virtually any convenient location of our country - in central Russia, in the south, in Siberia, in the Far East. Possible historical subbase is desirable but not necessary. Construction is possible and the person previously undeveloped site.
In principle, the project is a call to action, a sample implementation of a number of concepts ("Decentralization", "Russian silhouette", "The strategy of creating homogeneous spaces in the center of Yaroslavl", "Development strategy for Russian settlements" and the Perm Masterplan, New Urbanism, retrospectivism in a broad sense). It can be changed (while maintaining the basic principles) and supplemented or reduced, depending on the set conditions. It is possible partial implementation (within a few blocks, one block, several buildings, even a single building located in the historical environment).
In any case, Novoarkhangelsk to date has not in the least like-minded peers and can claim the right to be one of the models for further development of human tissue in the Russian Federation.
Concepts of buildings you can see by this link.